Database management is the process for managing information that supports the business operations of an organization. It involves storing and distributing data it to applications and users and editing it when needed, monitoring data changes, and stopping data corruption due unexpected failure. It is a part of the entire informational infrastructure of a company that supports decision making as well as corporate growth and compliance with laws like the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were developed in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which allowed large amounts data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of purposes. From calculating inventory, to aiding complex financial accounting functions as well as human resource functions.

A database consists of tables that organize data according to a particular arrangement, like one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records, and allow cross-references between tables. Each table has a set of attributes, or fields, that represent facts about data entities. The most popular type of database today is a relational model, designed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it more easy to use. It is also easier to update data because it doesn’t require the modification of certain sections of the database.

Most DBMSs support multiple types of databases by providing different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is focused on costs, scalability and other operational issues, such as the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a mix of different external views based on different data models and could include virtual tables that are computed using generic data in order to improve the performance.

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